|Optical and X-ray early follow-up of ANTARES neutrino alerts |
Auteur(s): Adrián-Martínez S., Ageron M., Albert A., André M., Anton G., Ardid M., Aubert J. -J., Basa S., Bertin V., Biagi S., Bormuth R., Bou-Cabo M., Brunner J., Busto J., Capone A., Carr J., Costantini H., Coyle P., Dekeyser I., Deschamps Anne, Donzaud C., Dornic D., Drouhin D., Dumas Alexis, Eberl T., Enzenhöfer A., Gay P., Lefevre D., Martini S., Tamburini C.
(Article) Publié: Journal Of Cosmology And Astroparticle Physics, vol. p. (2016)
Ref HAL: hal-01441181_v1
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High-energy neutrinos could be produced in the interaction of charged cosmic rays with matter or radiation surrounding astrophysical sources. Even with the recent detection of extraterrestrial high-energy neutrinos by the IceCube experiment, no astrophysical neutrino source has yet been discovered. Transient sources, such as gamma-ray bursts, core-collapse supernovae, or active galactic nuclei are promising candidates. Multi-messenger programs offer a unique opportunity to detect these transient sources. By combining the information provided by the ANTARES neutrino telescope with information coming from other observatories, the probability of detecting a source is enhanced, allowing the possibility of identifying a neutrino progenitor from a single detected event. A method based on optical and X-ray follow-ups of high-energy neutrino alerts has been developed within the ANTARES collaboration. This method does not require any assumptions on the relation between neutrino and photon spectra other than time-correlation. This program, denoted as TAToO, triggers a network of robotic optical telescopes (TAROT and ROTSE) and the Swift-XRT with a delay of only a few seconds after a neutrino detection, and is therefore well-suited to search for fast transient sources. To identify an optical or Xray counterpart to a neutrino signal, the images provided by the follow-up observations are analysed with dedicated pipelines. A total of 42 alerts with optical and 7 alerts with Xray images taken with a maximum delay of 24 hours after the neutrino trigger have been analysed. No optical or X-ray counterparts associated to the neutrino triggers have been found, and upper limits on transient source magnitudes have been derived. The probability to reject the gamma-ray burst origin hypothesis has been computed for each alert.